' Emily Liu | MTTLR

Privacy Risks with using XR in Education

Online learning has become widespread and normalized during the pandemic. In a survey conducted from September to October 2020 of about 3,500 full-time college students, 72% of students were concerned about remaining engagedwhile learning remotely. Extended Reality (XR) technologies, including Augmented Reality (AR) and VR (Virtual Reality), can improve student engagement and success in online education. Augmented Reality, as its name suggests, augments a user’s surroundings by placing digital elements in a live view, commonly through the user’s smartphone camera. On the other hand, Virtual Reality allows the user to replace the real world through wearing a headset and headphones to simulate an immersive experience. Though XR technologies have not been widely adopted in education yet, its use can benefit a variety of disciplinesranging from medicine to foreign languages. Among various legal uncertainties, universities that seek to provide XR in education should be aware of privacy risks associated with these technologies. Privacy Concerns with Computed Data XR technologies comprise displays and sensors that need to collect heavy data streams in order to provide the user with an immersive experience. Data can include a user’s location, biographic, biometric, and demographic information. More intrusive types of data collection include gaze-tracking, a feature likely to be essential to XR technologies’ ability to provide users deeply immersive experiences, such as rendering more sharply the virtual world elements where users are actively looking. The types of data that XR devices collect can be broadly categorized into four categories of data: observable, observed, computed, and associated. Observable data is information that third parties can observe and replicate, such as digital communications between users. In contrast,...